## ] o c n m p [## Open Communications in Nonlinear Mathematical Physics |

Articles and Letters published during 2024 (not complete)

The generating series for the instanton contribution to Green functions of the $2D$ sigma model was found in the works of Schwarz, Fateev and Frolov. We show that this series can be written as a formal tau function of the two-sided two-component KP hierarchy. We call it formal singular tau function because this tau function is a sum where each term is the infrared and ultraviolet divergent one exactly as the series found by the mentioned authors. However one can regularize this singluar tau function and to obtain regular observables. This is because observables contains ratious of mentioned divergent expressions. Thus, we enladge the families of tau functions to work with.

We obtain conditions, which when fulfilled, permit to transform the coordinates of a dynamical system into pairs of canonical ones for some Hamiltonian system. These conditions, restricted to the class of coordinate transformations which act on each coordinate independently, are greatly simplified. However, they are surprisingly successful in defining canonical coordinates and an associated Hamiltonian for several test examples. So, a method is proposed to exploit these simple transformations in a systematic manner.

We present a version of the classical Moran model, in which mutations are taken into account; the possibility of mutations was introduced by Moran in his seminal paper, but it is more often overlooked in discussing the Moran model. For this model, fixation is prevented by mutation, and we have an ergodic Markov process; the equilibrium distribution for such a process was determined by Moran. The problems we consider in this paper are those of first hitting either one of the ``pure'' (uniform population) states, depending on the initial state; and that of first hitting times. The presence of mutations leads to a nonlinear dependence of the hitting probabilities on the initial state, and to a larger mean hitting time compared to the mutation-free process (in which case hitting corresponds to fixation of one of the alleles).

We consider here the class of fully-nonlinear symmetry-integrable third-order evolution equations in 1+1 dimensions that were proposed recently in the journal Open Communications in Nonlinear Mathematical Physics, vol. 2, 216--228 (2022). In particular, we report all zero-order and higher-order potentialisations for this class of equations using their integrating factors (or multipliers) up to order four. Chains of connecting evolution equations are also obtained by multi-potentialisations.