Volume 2

Articles and Letters published during 2022.


Emil Novruzov.
We consider the propagation of equatorial waves of small amplitude, in a flow with an underlying non-uniform current. Without making the too restrictive rigid-lid approximation, by exploiting the available Hamiltonian structure of the problem, we derive the dispersion relation for the propagation of coupled long-waves: a surface wave and an internal wave. Also, we investigate the above-mentioned model of wave-current interactions in the general case with arbitrary vorticities.

2. Search for integrable two-component versions of the lattice equations in the ABS-list

Jarmo Hietarinta.
We search and classify two-component versions of the quad equations in the ABS list, under certain assumptions. The independent variables will be called $y,z$ and in addition to multilinearity and irreducibility the equation pair is required to have the following specific properties: (1) The two equations forming the pair are related by $y\leftrightarrow z$ exchange. (2) When $z=y$ both equations reduce to one of the equations in the ABS list. (3) Evolution in any corner direction is by a multilinear equation pair. One straightforward way to construct such two-component pairs is by taking some particular equation in the ABS list (in terms of $y$), using replacement $y \leftrightarrow z$ for some particular shifts, after which the other equation of the pair is obtained by property (1). This way we can get 8 pairs for each starting equation. One of our main results is that due to condition (3) this is in fact complete for H1, H3, Q1, Q3. (For H2 we have a further case, Q2, Q4 we did not check.) As for the CAC integrability test, for each choice of the bottom equations we could in principle have $8^2$ possible side-equations. However, we find that only equations constructed with an even number of $y \leftrightarrow z$ replacements are possible, and for each such equation there are two sets of "side" equation pairs that produce (the same) genuine Bäcklund transformation and Lax pair.

3. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation with forcing involving products of eigenfunctions

A. S. Fokas ; A. Latifi.
We elaborate on a new methodology, which starting with an integrable evolution equation in one spatial dimension, constructs an integrable forced version of this equation. The forcing consists of terms involving quadratic products of certain eigenfunctions of the associated Lax pair. Remarkably, some of these forced equations arise in the modelling of important physical phenomena. The initial value problem of these equations can be formulated as a Riemann-Hilbert problem, where the "jump matrix" has explicit x and t dependence and can be computed in terms of the initial data. Thus, these equations can be solved as efficiently as the nonlinear integrable equations from which they are generated. Details are given for the forced versions of the nonlinear Schrodinger.

4. Symmetry classification of scalar autonomous Ito stochastic differential equations with simple noise

Giuseppe Gaeta ; Miguel Angel Rodriguez.
It is known that knowledge of a symmetry of a scalar Ito stochastic differential equations leads, thanks to the Kozlov substitution, to its integration. In the present paper we provide a classification of scalar autonomous Ito stochastic differential equations with simple noise possessing symmetries; here "simple noise" means the noise coefficient is of the form $\s (x,t) = s x^k$, with $s$ and $k$ real constants. Such equations can be taken to a standard form via a well known transformation; for such standard forms we also provide the integration of the symmetric equations. Our work extends previous classifications in that it also consider recently introduced types of symmetries, in particular standard random symmetries, not considered in those.

5. New Solvable System of 2 First-Order Nonlinearly-Coupled Ordinary Differential Equations

Francesco Calogero ; Farrin Payandeh.
In this short communication we introduce a rather simple autonomous system of 2 nonlinearly-coupled first-order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), whose initial-values problem is explicitly solvable by algebraic operations. Its ODEs feature 2 right-hand sides which are the ratios of 2 homogeneous polynomials of first degree divided by the same homogeneous polynomial of second degree. The model features only 4 arbitrary parameters. We also report its isochronous variant featuring 4 nonlinearly-coupled first-order ODEs in 4 dependent variables, featuring 9 arbitrary parameters.

6. On Hamiltonian Formalism for Dressing Chain Equations of Even Periodicity

H. Aratyn ; J. F. Gomes ; A. H. Zimerman.
We propose a Hamiltonian formalism for $N$ periodic dressing chain with the even number $N$. The formalism is based on Dirac reduction applied to the $N+1$ periodic dressing chain with the odd number $N+1$ for which the Hamiltonian formalism is well known. The Hamilton dressing chain equations in the $N$ even case depend explicitly on a pair of conjugated Dirac constraints and are equivalent to $A^{(1)}_{N-1}$ invariant symmetric Painlevé equations.

7. Integrable Ito equations with multiple noises

Giuseppe Gaeta ; Miguel Angel Rodriguez.
The classification of scalar Ito equations with a single noise source which admit a so called standard symmetry and hence are -- by the Kozlov construction -- integrable is by now complete. In this paper we study the situation, occurring in physical as well as biological applications, where there are two independent noise sources. We determine all such autonomous Ito equations admitting a standard symmetry; we then integrate them by means of the Kozlov construction. We also consider the case of three or more independent noises, showing no standard symmetry is present.

8. On the parametrization of solutions of the Yang--Baxter equations

J. Hietarinta ; C. Viallet.
We study all five-, six-, and one eight-vertex type two-state solutions of the Yang-Baxter equations in the form $A_{12} B_{13} C_{23} = C_{23} B_{13} A_{12}$, and analyze the interplay of the `gauge' and `inversion' symmetries of these solution. Starting with algebraic solutions, whose parameters have no specific interpretation, and then using these symmetries we can construct a parametrization where we can identify global, color and spectral parameters. We show in particular how the distribution of these parameters may be changed by a change of gauge.

9. On differential equations invariant under two-variable Möbius transformations

M. Euler ; N. Euler ; MC Nucci.
We compute invariants for the two-variable Möbius transformation. In particular we are interested in partial differential equations in two dependent and two independent variables that are kept invariant under this transformation.

10. The hidden symmetry of Kontsevich's graph flows on the spaces of Nambu-determinant Poisson brackets

Ricardo Buring ; Dimitri Lipper ; Arthemy V. Kiselev.
Kontsevich's graph flows are -- universally for all finite-dimensional affine Poisson manifolds -- infinitesimal symmetries of the spaces of Poisson brackets. We show that the previously known tetrahedral flow and the recently obtained pentagon-wheel flow preserve the class of Nambu-determinant Poisson bi-vectors $P=[\![ \varrho(\boldsymbol{x})\,\partial_x\wedge\partial_y\wedge\partial_z,a]\!]$ on $\mathbb{R}^3\ni\boldsymbol{x}=(x,y,z)$ and $P=[\![ [\![\varrho(\boldsymbol{y})\,\partial_{x^1}\wedge\ldots\wedge\partial_{x^4},a_1]\!],a_2]\!]$ on $\mathbb{R}^4\ni\boldsymbol{y}$, including the general case $\varrho \not\equiv 1$. We detect that the Poisson bracket evolution $\dot{P} = Q_\gamma(P^{\otimes^{\# Vert(\gamma)}})$ is trivial in the second Poisson cohomology, $Q_\gamma = [\![ P, \vec{X}([\varrho],[a]) ]\!]$, for the Nambu-determinant bi-vectors $P(\varrho,[a])$ on $\mathbb{R}^3$. For the global Casimirs $\mathbf{a} = (a_1,\ldots,a_{d-2})$ and inverse density $\varrho$ on $\mathbb{R}^d$, we analyse the combinatorics of their evolution induced by the Kontsevich graph flows, namely $\dot{\varrho} = \dot{\varrho}([\varrho], [\mathbf{a}])$ and $\dot{\mathbf{a}} = \dot{\mathbf{a}}([\varrho],[\mathbf{a}])$ with differential-polynomial right-hand sides. Besides the anticipated collapse of these formulas by using the Civita symbols (three for the tetrahedron $\gamma_3$ and five for the pentagon-wheel graph cocycle $\gamma_5$), as dictated by the behaviour […]

11. On fully-nonlinear symmetry-integrable equations with rational functions in their highest derivative: Recursion operators

Marianna Euler ; Norbert Euler.
We report a class of symmetry-intergable third-order evolution equations in 1+1 dimensions under the condition that the equations admit a second-order recursion operator that contains an adjoint symmetry (integrating factor) of order six. The recursion operators are given explicitly.